Phoenix: The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus by Charles Burney, David Marshall Lang, Phoenix Press; New Ed edition December 31, 2001• on the territory of the disintegrated eastern empire, three independent Greek centers were formed; The empire of Nicaea and the empire of Trebizond in Asia Minor and the Despotat of Epirus in Northern Greece
324 - 1453, second edition Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1958 , p Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, Vol 2

أين تقع مدينة طرابزون

Ronald Grigor Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition December 1994 , Indiana University Press, , page 45•.

مدينة طرابزون
Malte-Brun, Conrad, Universal geography: or a description of all parts of the world
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